Together, these beads have played an enormous role in the culture, fashion, economy and artistic expression of the African people. Today, they are cherished by collectors, jewellery makers, and everyday people who just love wearing African beads! African tribal beads and glass beads also hold a special mythical significance as well. Beads and Bead- making have a long history in Africa. Beads have been made by indigenous Africans for thousands of years. In ancient times, Egyptians, Greeks, and Indians established trading bases in East Africa and eventually the Arabs invaded in the eighth century and established trade routes with the wealthy kingdom of Ghana in modern-day Mauritania. The Arabs brought glass beads to the Niger Delta to trade for gold and slaves. The modern production of beads is in some sense a family tradition, where tools and techniques are passed from one generation to the next. Bead-making is a labour-intensive process and since many beads are hand-made, there is variability in the appearance of individual beads even within a single strand.
Click on the bead photo for a larger view. The ends or all of this type are rough and unpolished. There are no surface decorations. All of the beads are extra large exceeding 20 mm in length and having a diameter of mm. All of these beads are opaque with white being the prevalent color, but burgundy and black also occur.
Between Egypt, Mesopotamia and Scandinavia: Late Bronze Age glass beads found in Denmark. Glass beads from Danish graves are the only finds of Egyptian glass outside the Mediterranean area. dating to the late 13th Century BC. Here we present evidence for both Egyptian and Mesopotamian glass beads in Danish graves from the second half.
Trade Tales and Tiny Trails: Paths lined with stones taken from those archaeological walls have been kicked out of alignment by grazing cattle or scampering kudus. Less than ten years earlier, large stone circles led to a dancing floor in front of a collapsing wooden structure, which housed purification basins. Thirty meters beyond these basins, at the base of a man-made cave christened by a sacrificed snake, sits a clay-lined basin, still filled with blue-and-white striped glass beads.
Although these beads are modern, they have ancient echoes that extend nearly 1, years ago in the past. Glass beads, more than any other type of artifact, help us make sense of the last years of Kalahari history. Glass beads help link the archaeologist to a time and a place beyond ancient texts and oral histories, when this part of Africa—thousands of miles from the Indian Ocean—traded with the Middle East, India, Indonesia, and China.
Glass underwent considerable development in the second industrial age. The making of clear plate glass was perfected in the late 19th century, as were techniques of sandblasting and etching it. In the United States in the Libbey Owens Glass… Commercial glass composition Commercial glasses may be divided into soda—lime—silica glasses and special glasses, most of the tonnage produced being of the former class.
Nevertheless, the production of fused silica glass is quite a large industry; it is manufactured in various qualities, and, when intended for optical purposes, the raw material used is rock crystal rather than quartz sand. But such glasses are easily soluble in water their solutions are called water glass.
Older Ghanaian dry core powder glass beads, dating from the s, are the Akoso beads, which were also manufactured by the Krobo. The most common colour of Akoso beads is yellow. There are also green, and rarely blue or black specimens.
Buy and enjoy your chic and special jewels from the comfort of your home or mobile. About Roman Glass History – years Roman Glass Roman glass is an ancient glass, discovered in archaeological excavation sites in Israel and in other Mediterranean countries. The fine Sterling Silver Roman glass Jewelry is one of the most popular types and styles originated from Israel enabling to wear an entirely unique piece of 2, year-old history. The Roman glass in this aqua-hued jewelry began life as a vase, jug, or vessel.
Uncovered from ancient Roman archaeological sites in modern-day Israel, each fragment has been textured and colored by centuries of wind and weather. Each bears the marks of not only its past life as a household or temple object but also the very earth in which it rested until being transformed into a unique accent. Each piece of Roman glass is framed by a sterling silver bezel to create a unique roman glass jewel.
From Bluenoemi about Life Style Culture Music Fashion Home The designs for the jewels are based on artifacts and drawings also discovered on the archeological digs. The Roman glass is a beautiful piece of history dating back 2, years to the time of the Roman Empire.
Group Culture Coordinator and Researcher Rukariro Katsande weighs in on the significance of beads in African culture… Part 1 — Materials and Origin Beads are among the most intriguing and important symbols in African culture, past and present. The origin of beads and beadwork in Africa dates back to the beginning of any civilization documented in archaeological history, some say as far as 10, BC.
Material used to make the beads is useful to determine the technological ages, for dating local initiatives as well as foreign contributions to the art form. There has been much dispute as to where the more advanced technologies originated, however ample evidence points to a parallel universal development, and an abundance of natural resources required for the making of for example, glass beads in Africa.
In contemporary times beads are also produced from synthetic materials like glass, plastic and alloy metals. In southern Africa, important historical sites where beads have been found include Mapungubwe in South Africa and Great Zimbabwe just to the north.
Here for sale is an unusual necklace. In fair condition for its age, dating from the Deco era. Made from green mottled glass beads and moulded Chinese style beads – not sure what the material is. They.
Gardner Cassatt, Horace Magee, and B. At times there would be as many as 7 different glass plants operating in this city many started by this original list of illustrious names in the glass industry. Original production at Jeannette included wide mouth jars, pressed glass headlamp lenses, and bottles. These items were manufactured using a semi-automatic glass blowing machine which had been invented in The company name was soon changed to the Jeannette Glass Company and the product line expanded.
Architects had begun using a new product in the design of storefront transom windows called prism glass. Prism glass scattered the light transmitted through the transom window strip above a storefront enabling it to more efficiently light the interior spaces. In Jeannette Glass added prism glass to their product line. American 3-Way Luxfer Prism Company then purchased controlling interest in the plant to make sure that prism glass would not be in short supply.
The glass company operations were all focussed on press ware from that point. Plant improvements were finished in Prism glass, meanwhile, was on the way out. With the advent of electricity the demand for the product fell off quickly. American 3-Way Luxfer kept controlling interest in Jeannette Glass until and actually maintained a lot of control of Jeannette Glass unofficially even after that.
AB Finish This iridescent finish used on glass and plastic beads is named after the colorful lights seen in northern skies, the aurora borealis, or AB for short. The finish is also called rainbow. AB beads may be any color and are usually monochromatic and transparent, but they may also be matte or even pearlized, as well as striped or silver-lined. Beads are given an AB finish by passing them through vaporized metal ions.
1st-3rd century AD and later. A group of four restrung opaque turquoise glass bead strings comprising: one of mainly oblate and discoid beads; one of graduated oblate beads with central element of facetted tubular and spherical beads; one of mainly graduated cylindrical and oblate beads; one of graduated oblate and spherical beads with a central element of larger various shaped beads.
Saturday, October 17, Where do beads come from? I am concentrating today solely on larger beads, that is, about 6mm and larger. In two days, I will have a post focusing solely on seed beads. However, a lot of this information is shared between the two. It is hard to separate the two, but Tomorrow, Lea Avroch will be the featured artist on this blog.
Lea is a glass artist that specializes in making glass beads. Her work is outstanding, and I am proud to be able to feature her work. It should be noted that glass beads like she makes, have not been around for long. It wasn’t until the s, when a workshop was offered By Ceramics professor Harvy K. Littleton 1 , at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, that inspired a handful of artists to seriously take up the art glass trade.
Glass Bead Making The technology for glass beadmaking is among the oldest human arts, dating back 3, years. Glass beads have been dated back to at least Roman times. Perhaps the earliest glass-like beads were Egyptian faience beads, a form of clay bead with a self-forming vitreous coating. Glass beads are significant in archaeology because the presence of glass beads often indicate that there was trade and that the beadmaking technology was being spread.
In addition, the composition of the glass beads could be analyzed and help archaeologists understand the sources of the beads. Common types of glass bead manufacture Glass beads are usually categorized by the method used to manipulate the glass – wound beads, drawn beads, and molded beads.
Wholesale Beads in Bulk at Discounted Prices to Craft Dealers Worldwide. Beads made of glass, metal, and a variety of other materials have been produced in various forms dating back thousands of years.
Bead knitting on double-pointed knitting needles 3D beading generally uses the techniques of bead weaving , which can be further divided into right angle weave and peyote stitch. Many 3D beading patterns are done in right angle weave, but sometimes both techniques are combined in the same piece. Both stitches are done using either fishing line or nylon thread. Fishing line lends itself better to right angle weave because it is stiffer than nylon thread, so it holds the beads in a tighter arrangement and does not easily break when tugged upon.
Nylon thread is more suited to peyote stitch because it is softer and more pliable than fishing line, which permits the beads of the stitch to sit straight without undue tension bending the arrangement out of place. Two needle right angle weave is done using both ends of the fishing line, in which beads are strung in repeated circular arrangements, and the fishing line is pulled tight after each bead circle is made. Single needed right angle weave was popularized in the 90’s by David Chatt and has become the norm.
Peyote stitch is stitched using only one end of the nylon thread. The other end of the string is left dangling at the beginning of the piece, while the first end of the thread progresses through the stitch. In peyote stitch, beads are woven into the piece in a very similar fashion to knitting or cross stitching.
In fact, it is not uncommon for cross stitch patterns to be beaded in peyote stitch technique. Peyote stitch patterns are very easy to depict diagrammatically because they are typically stitched flat.
Major element analysis was undertaken using energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry in the scanning electron microscope SEM-EDS on samples from a total of monochrome and polychrome beads. Trace element analysis was undertaken by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry LAICP- MS on 75 different samples from 65 of these beads.
The beads analysed were produced from soda-lime-silica glass, which was originally made in the Near East from a mixture of a natron and calcareous quartz-rich sand. They have been grouped and compared according to the base glass types represented and their colourant technology.
Glass beads and the art of bead making date back to around 3, years ago, making it one of the oldest of art forms. There are many different types of glass beads and they are typically categorized and named after the method used to manipulate and form the glass.
About Glass History of Glass From our earliest origins, man has been making use of glass. Historians have discovered that a form of natural glass – obsidian – formed for instance, within the mouth of a volcano as a result of the intense heat of an eruption melting sand – was first used by man as tips for spears. Archaeologists have found evidence of man-made glass which dates back to BC; this took the form of glazes used for coating stone beads. It was not until BC that the first hollow glass container was made by covering a sand core with a layer of molten glass.
Glass blowing became the most common way to make glass containers from the First Century BC. However, the glass made during this time was highly coloured due to the impurities of the raw material. It was not until the First Century AD when colourless glass was produced and then coloured by the addition of colouring materials. The secret of glass making came to Britain with the Romans. However, the skills and technology required to make glass were closely guarded by the Romans and it was not until the Roman Empire disintegrated that skills for glass making spread throughout Europe and the Middle East.
This striking revelation occurred as elegant Egyptian glass beads were found in Danish Bronze Age burials dating back to years ago. This finding proves that there were established trade routes between the far north and the Levant as early as the 13th century. During excavation across 51 burials sites inside of Denmark, glass beads have been found, with the majority of them originating from Nippur, Mesopotamia, which is approximately 50 km southeast of modern-day Baghdad.
In the north, the blue glass was seen as magic and truly a gem from the heavens. This style of blue was a rare and worshiped color during ancient times. Danish examiners believe the blue glass beads placed in the graves had religious meaning.
Indigenous Australians took European glass beads from Macassan seafarers in return for giving them fishing rights on traditional lands as early as the 18th Century, say archaeologists.
There are composites, such as millefiori beads, where cross-sections of a drawn glass cane are applied to a wound glass core. A very minor industry in blown glass beads also existed in 19th-century Venice and France. Wound glass beads[ edit ] Probably the earliest beads of true glass were made by the winding method. Glass at a temperature high enough to make it workable, or “ductile”, is laid down or wound around a steel wire or mandrel coated in a clay slip called “bead release.
This process is called marvering, originating from the French word “marbrer” which translates to “marble”. It can also be pressed into a mold in its molten state. While still hot, or after re-heating, the surface of the bead may be decorated with fine rods of colored glass called stringers creating a type of lampwork bead. Drawn glass beads[ edit ] The drawing of glass is also very ancient.
Evidence of large-scale drawn-glass beadmaking has been found by archeologists in India, at sites like Arekamedu dating to the 2nd century CE. The small drawn beads made by that industry have been called Indo-Pacific beads, because they may have been the single most widely traded item in history—found from the islands of the Pacific to Great Zimbabwe in southern Africa. In Arekamedu this was accomplished by inserting a hollow metal tube into the ball of hot glass and pulling the glass strand out around it, to form a continuous glass tube.
In the Venetian bead industry, molten glass was gathered on the end of a tool called a puntile “puntying up” , a bubble was incorporated into the center of a gather of molten glass, and a second puntile was attached before stretching the gather with its internal bubble into a long cane. The drawn tube was then chopped, producing individual drawn beads from its slices.
Satake is a Japanese glass and comes in both soda lime C. This is really soft glass, but has beautiful colors. Then there are the C.
A newly found treasure trove of more than 10, colorful glass beads and evidence of glassmaking tools, makes scientists think that an ancient city in southwestern Nigeria was one of the first places in West Africa to ace the complicated art of glassmaking.
OldBeads beads and jewelry dating from antiquity to the present and specializing in the tribal My pages of ethnic and ethnographic beads and jewelry are an expression of my passions I have become a passionate investigator of the hand made, whether from thousands of years in the past, or from artisans of today One of the rewards of owning ancient Roman beads, an Egyptian amulet, 19th Century African trade beads, a Yemeni silver bracelet, a Precolumbian stone pendant from the Americas or ancient stone beads from Irian Jaya is the knowledge that the same thing that you hold in your hand was worn and held important by a chain of owners extending back to its original manufacture.
The respect and admiration for the art and history of the piece exists within the new owner. Eye beads were used to ward off evil spirits, amulets protected the wearer from harm, charms and mementos and talismans had a very special, very important personal and mystic function for the owner that becomes infused into each piece and transformed by the modern owner into something personal of their own. Instead of languishing in insulated museum cases, it is wonderful to see these things loved, cherished, touched and brought back to life again.
If you are interested in personal embellishment and adornment, in ethnic and ethnographic jewelry, in ancient lives and past arts, then please continue and browse through some of my pages. I hope that the tour intrigues you This is my virtual bead store, and like any proud proprietor, I am here to answer any and all of your questions that I can, so please look through my pages and stop in to have a conversation if you like You can contact me at the email address: